Apr 19, 2017

L2G32 단어 사동 (-이/히/리/기/우/추-) grammar = make sb/sth do something...~causative verbs

L2G32 단어 사동 (-이/히/리/기/우/추-) grammar = make sb/sth do something...~causative verbs

Usage:
  • Make/let/cause somebody do something
  • The affix is often added to the stems of some verbs and adjectives.


Structure:
1. N-을/를 V-이/히/리/기/우     <= N이/가 V : to make/let/cause someone to do something

철수가 영희를 울려요.           <= 영희가 울어요.
Cheolsu makes Yeonghee cry. <= Younghee cries.

고양이가 쥐를 죽였어요. <= 쥐가 죽었어요.
A cat killed a mouse.     <= A mouse died.

내가 친구를 웃겼어요.     <= 친구가 웃었어요.
I made my friend laugh.  <= My friend laughed.

우리가 택시를 세웠어요. <= 택시가 섰어요.
We stopped the taxi.     <= The taxi was stopped.

2. N에게 N을/를 V-이/히/리/기/우   <= N이/가 N을/를 V : someone to do something for/to someone.

어머니가 아이에게 우유를 먹여요. <= 아이가 우유를 먹어요.
Mother feeds milk for her baby.     <=  The baby drinks milk.

선생님께서 학생들에게 책을 읽혀요. <= 학생들이 책을 읽어요.
Teacher tell students read book.      <= Students read book.

영희는 윌슨에게 그 일을 맡겼어요.           <= 윌슨이 그 일을 맡았어요.
Younghee entrusted that work to Wilson  <= Wilson took that work.


List of typical -이/히/리/기/우/추- causative verbs:

Suffix
Verb Base
Causative Verb
Example and Gloss
먹다
먹이다
저는 8 시에 아기에게 우유를 먹여요.
to eat
to feed
I feed my baby milk at eight o'clock.
보다
보이다
안내하는 직원에게 신분증을 보이세요.
to see
to show
Please show the attendant your ID.
죽다
죽이다
개미도 죽이지 마세요.
to die
to kill
Please don't kill even an ant.
속다
속이다
사람들을 언제나 속일 수 없어요.
to be cheated
to cheat, to fool
You can't fool the people all the time.
줄다
줄이다
바지를 줄여야 해요.
to shrink, to decrease
to shrink, to reduce
I have to shorten a pair of pants.
높다
높이다
저 건물을 더 높인대요?
to be high
to raise, to make tall
Are they going to make the building higher?
녹다
녹이다
눈을 녹여서 물을 썼어요.
to melt
to melt
I melted the snow to use as water.




읽다
읽히다
선생님께서 저에게 책을 읽히셨어요.
to read
to make read
My teacher has me read the book.
앉다
앉히다
그 의자에 아기를 혼자 앉히지 마세요.
to sit down
to seat
Please don't let the baby sit on the chair alone.
입다
입히다
아침에 동생에게 코트를 입혀 줬어요.
to put on (clothes)
to dress, to put on (someone)
I put the coat on my little sister in the morning.
넓다
넓히다
이 길은 넓혀야 해요.
to be wide
to widen
This road has to be widened.
익다
익히다
야채는 너무 익히면 맛이 없어요.
to be cooked, to become ripe
to cook, to make done/ripe
Vegetables do not taste good when overcooked.
식다
식히다
너무 뜨거우면 식히세요.
to cool off
to cool it off
If it is too hot, please cool it off.




알다
알리다
도착시간을 알려 주세요.
to know
to let be known
Please let me know the arrival time.
울다
울리다
그 영화가 사람들을 울렸어요.
to cry, to weep
to make (someone) cry
The movie made people weep.
살다
살리다
저 개가 어린이를 살렸어요.
to live
to make one live, to save
The dog saved a child.
돌다
돌리다
문을 열려면 핸들을 돌리세요.
to go around
to turn
To open the door, turn the handle.
늘다
늘리다
수출을 십퍼센트 늘렸다.
to increase
to increase
We increased exports by 10 percent.




웃다
웃기다
그 분은 사람들을 잘 웃겨요.
to laugh
to make laugh
He makes people laugh a lot.
맡다
맡기다
누구에게 이 책임을 맡길까요?
to keep
to entrust, to check
To whom shall I give this responsibility?
벗다
벗기다
제가 아기 신발을 벗겼어요.
to take off
to undress, to strip
I took off the baby's shoes.
신다
신기다
아기 신발을 다시 신길까요?
to put on (shoes)
to put on (shoes)
Shall I put the shoes back on the baby?
숨다
숨기다
나는 너에게 숨기는 것이 없어.
to hide
to hide, to conceal
I have nothing to hide from you.
씻다
씻기다
도로가 비에 깨끗이 씻기었다.
to wash
to let wash
The road was washed clean by the rain.
빗다
빗기다
머리를 빗겨 줄까?
to comb
to comb
Shall I comb your hair?




자다
재우다
엄마가 아기를 재우고 있어요.
to sleep
to put to bed
Mother is putting the baby to sleep.
깨다
깨우다
아침 7 시에 좀 깨워 주세요.
to be awake
to wake
Would you wake me up at 7:00 a.m.?
타다
태우다
엄마가 아이를 학교 버스에 태웠어요.
to get on, to ride
to load, to put on (a vehicle)
Mother put her child on the school bus.
서다
세우다
차를 기차역 앞에서 세워주세요.
to stand, to stop
to stop, to erect
Please stop the car in front of the train station.
비다
비우다
쓰레기통을 좀 비워 주시겠어요?
to be empty/vacant
to vacate, to empty
Would you empty the wastebasket?




돋다
돋구다
운동은 밥맛을 돋구어 준다.
to rise, to sprout
to enhance
Exercise enhances one's appetite.






낮다
낮추다
음악을 낮추어 주시겠어요?
to be low
to lower
Would you lower the volume of the music?
늦다
늦추다
한 달은 너무 짧으니 기간을 좀 늦춥시다.
to be late
to extend, to defer
One month is too short; let's extend it.
맞다
맞추다
몸에 맞추어 옷을 맡겼어요.
to fit, to be correct
to set, to match
I ordered a dress made to fit (my body).


Comparison between 피동사 passive and 사동사 causative form:
  • Causative form: when someone or something (Subject) "causes" one to do the action. (i.e. -게 하다).
  • Passive form: when there is no need for the Subject to actively cause another to do the action. (i.e. -아/어 지다).

Specific usage:
1. Some verbs have identical passive and causative forms, but they can be differentiated by the contexts.
E.g.
이 책은 많은 사람들에게 읽혔어요. -- This book has been read by many people  (Passive)
선생님은 민아에게 책을 읽혔어요.  -- The teacher made Mina read the book (Causative)

2. -아/어 주다  can be also added to the causative verbs
E.g. 안나는 더러워진 고양이를 씻겼어요. =  안나는 더러워진 고양이를 씻겨 줬어요 -- Anna gave the dirty cat a bath.

E.g. 엄마는 아이에게 예쁜 구두를 신겼어요. = 엄마는 아이에게 예쁜 구두를 신겨 줬어요. -- The mother had the child wear pretty shoes.
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